DNA Damage: Figures


Figure 1. UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. (Left) Cyclobutane pyrimidine (thymine-thymine) dimer; (Right) pyrimidine (6 – 4) pyrimidone photoproduct. Image was reproduced, with permission, from Nikitaki et al. (2015) 644. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Figure 2: Adduct formation between guanine (A) or adenine (B) and benzopyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). Image was reproduced from Muñoz and Albores (2011) 645. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.



Figure 3: Ionizing radiation acts directly and indirectly on DNA. Image was reproduced, with permission, from Desouky et al. (2015) 42. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/



Figure 4: Tautomerisation of nitrogenous DNA bases. Image was reproduced, with permission, from Chakarov et al. (2014) 1. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Figure 5: Mechanism of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) formation. Image was reproduced from Giorgio et al. (2020) 85. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.


Figure 6. Common DNA base lesions. 8-oxo-G: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine; 8-oxo-A: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroadenosine; 5-hydroxy-C: 5-hydroxycytidine; 5-hydroxy-U: 5-hydroxyuridine; etheno-A: ethenoadenosine; faPy-G: 6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine; faPy-A: 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine. Image was reproduced from Chakarov et al. (2014) 1. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.



Figure 7: Genomic destabilization of cancer cells caused by inflammatory mediators. For details see text. Image was reproduced from Multhoff and Radons (2012) 104. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/.


Figure 8: Proposed model of DNA lesion detection in global genomic NER.  XPA (B, D): Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (B, D). Image was reproduced from Kusakabe et al. (2019) 301. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


Figure 9: ROS-induced DNA excision repair mechanisms. BER: base excision repair; NER: nucleotide excision repair. Image was reproduced from Lee and Kang (2019) 312. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Figure 10:  Generation of 8-OH-dG and 8-oxo-dG. 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG); 4,8-endoperoxide-2′-deoxyguanosine (1); 4R/4S 4-Hydroxy-8-oxo-4,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (2); 4R/4S spiroiminodihydantoin nucleoside (3); 8-Hydroperoxy-2′-deoxyguanosie (4); 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (5); 8-Hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosyl radical (6); 7-Hydro-8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (7); 2,6-diamino-4-Hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) (8); 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (9), oxazolone (10). Image was reproduced from Urbaniak et al. (2020) 377. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Figure 11: Generation of thymidine glycol through ROS-mediated oxidation. Reprinted with permission from Laverty and Greenberg (2017) 646. Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society.

Figure 12: Role of γ-H2AX and post-translational modifications in the early double-strand break repair (DSBR). For details see section Biomarkers of DNA Damage. Image reproduced with permission from Pinder et al. (2013) 292. License at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.